Since the literature on World War II is prodigious, I make no attempt here to offer a comprehensive bibliography, but restrict myself to listing only the works I directly consulted or cited in writing Choices Under Fire. The reader who seeks a general orientation regarding the scholarship and other writings on World War II would do well to start with the fine bibliographic essays presented by Gerhard Weinberg in A World at Arms (Cambridge U. Press, 1994), 921-44; and by David M. Kennedy in The American People in World War II (Oxford U. Press, 1999), 435-40.

See also the web site of the World War II Studies Association, which offers periodically updated bibliographies on the war: For a general guide to web sites on the war see J. Douglas Smith and Richard Jensen, World War II on the Web (Scholarly Resources, 2003).

Adamthwaite, Anthony, The Lost Peace: International Relations in Europe, 1918-1939 (St. Martin’s, 1981).

Alibek, Ken, and Stephen Handelman, Biohazard (Delta, 2000).

Alperovitz, Gar, Peter Dimok, and Sanho Tree, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb (Vintage, 1996).

Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers (Simon & Schuster, 1998).
—–, D-Day, June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II (Simon & Schuster, 1994).

Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob, Telling the Truth About History (Norton,

Art, Robert J., and Robert Jervis, eds., International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (HarperCollins, 1996).

Asada, Sadao, “The Shock of the Atomic Bomb and Japan’s Decision to Surrender: A Reconsideration,” Pacific Historical Review 64:4 (November 1998).

Axell, Albert, and Hideaki Kase, Kamikaze: Japan’s Suicide Gods (Longman, 2002).

Baldwin, Peter, ed., Reworking the Past: Hitler, the Holocaust, and the Historians’ Debate (Beacon, 1990).

Barber, John, and Mark Harrison, The Soviet Home Front, 1941-45: A Social and Economic History of the U.S.S.R. in World War II (Longman, 1991).

Barenblatt, Daniel, A Plague Upon Humanity: The Secret Genocide of Axis Japan’s Germ Warfare Operation (HarperCollins, 2004)

Barnett, Victoria J., Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust (Greenwood, 1999).
—–, For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest Against Hitler (Oxford U. Press, 1992).

Bass, Gary J., Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals (Princeton U. Press, 2000).

Battin, M. Pabst, Ethical issues in suicide (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

Bauman, Zygmunt, Modernity and the Holocaust (Cornell U. Press, 1989).

Beck, Earl R., Under the Bombs: The German Home Front, 1942-45 (University Press of Kentucky, 1999).

Beevor, Antony, Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege, 1942-1943 (Penguin, 1999).

Benson, John, and Takao Matsumura, Japan, 1868-1945: From Isolation to Occupation (Pearson, 2001).

Bernstein, Barton, “The Atomic Bombings Reconsidered,” Foreign Affairs 74:1 (January-February 1995).

Bess, Michael, Realism, Utopia, and the Mushroom Cloud: Four Activist Intellectuals and Their Strategies for Peace. Louise Weiss (France), Leo Szilard (USA), E.P. Thompson (England), Danilo Dolci (Italy) (U. of Chicago Press, 1993).

—–, The Light-Green Society: Ecology and Technological Modernity in France, 1960-2000 (U. of Chicago Press, 2003).

Bird, Kai, and Martin Sherwin, American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer (Knopf, 2005).

Bloch, Marc, Strange Defeat (Norton, 1999).

Bloxham, Donald, Genocide on Trial: War Crimes Trials and the Formation of Holocaust History and Memory (Oxford U. Press, 2001).

Bocquet, Dominique, Christian Deubner, and Quentin Peel, The Future of the Franco-German Relationship: Three Views (Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1997).

Bodnar, John E., Remaking America: Public Memory, Commemoration, and Patriotism in the Twentieth Century (Princeton U. Press, 1992).

Boulding, Kenneth, Stable Peace (U. of Texas Press, 1978).

Bourdet, Claude, L’Aventure Incertaine: De la Résistance à la Restauration (Stock, 1975).

Boyne, Walter, The Influence of Air Power upon History (Pelican, 2003).

Brokaw, Tom, The Greatest Generation (Random House, 1998).

Broomhall, Bruce, International Justice and the International Criminal Court: Between Sovereignty and the Rule of Law (Oxford U. Press, 2003).

Browning, Christopher, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (Harper & Row, 1992).

Budiansky, Stephen, Battle of Wits: The Complete Story of Codebreaking in World War II (Free Press, 2002).

Buell, Thomas B., The Quiet Warrior: A Biography of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance (Little, Brown, 1974).

Buruma, Ian, The Wages of Guilt: Memories of War in Germany and Japan (Meridian, 1994).

Byrnes, James F., All in One Lifetime (Harper & Row, 1954).

Calvino, Italo, The Path to the Spiders’ Nests (Ecco, 2000).

Carr, Edward Hallett, The Twenty Years’ Crisis 1919 -1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations (Palgrave, 2001).

—–, What is History? (Vintage, 1967).

Chang, Iris, The Rape of Nanking (Penguin, 1997).

Churchill, Winston, Memoirs of the Second World War, one-volume abridged edition (Houghton Mifflin, 1959).

Clark, Alan, Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict, 1941-1945 (Harper & Row, 1985).

Clendinnen, Inga, Reading the Holocaust (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Coffey, Thomas M., Iron Eagle: The Turbulent Life of General Curtis LeMay (Random House, 1986).

Cole, Alistair, Franco-German Relations (Longman, 2001).

Conan, Éric, and Henry Rousso, Vichy: An Ever-Present Past, trans. by Nathan Bracher (University Press of New England, 1998).

Cook, Haruko Taya, and Theodore F. Cook, Japan at War: An Oral History (New Press, 1992).

Crane, Conrad C., Bombs, Cities, and Civilians: American Airpower Strategy in World War II (U. of Kansas Press, 1993).

Daqing, Yang, “A Sino-Japanese Controversy: the Nanjing Massacre as History,” Sino-Japanese Studies 3 (November 1990), 14-35.

Davidson, Basil, Scenes From the Anti-Nazi War (Monthly Review Press, 1981).

Dear, I.C.B., and M.R.D. Foot, eds., The Oxford Companion to World War II (Oxford U. Press, 1995).

Delzell, Charles, Mussolini’s Enemies: The Italian Antifascist Resistance (Fertig, 1974).

Deutscher, Isaac, Stalin: A Political Biography (Oxford U. Press, 1967).

Dickers, Scott, ed., Our Dumb Century (Three Rivers, 1999).

Djilas, Milovan, Wartime (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980).

Douglas, Lawrence, The Memory of Judgment: Making Law and History in the Trials of the Holocaust (Yale U. Press, 2001).

Dower, John W.,Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (Norton/New Press, 1999).

—–, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (Pantheon, 1986).

Elshtain, Jean Bethke, ed., Just War Theory (New York U. Press, 1992).

Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (Macmillan, 1990).

Erenberg, Lewis, and Susan E. Hirsch, eds., The War in American Culture: Society and Consciousness During World War II (U. of Chicago Press, 1996).

Eubank, Keith, World War II: Roots and Causes, 2nd ed. (Heath, 1992).

Evans, Richard J., In Defense of History (Norton, 2000).

—–, Lying about Hitler: History, Holocaust, and the David Irving Trial (Basic Books, 2001).

Falk, Richard, Reframing the International : Law, Culture, Politics (Routledge, 2002).

Farmer, Sarah, Martyred Village: Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane (U. of California Press, 1999).

Farquharson, John E., and Stephen C. Holt, Europe from Below: An Assessment of Franco-German Popular Contacts (Allen & Unwin, 1975).

Feis, Herbert, Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin: The War They Waged and the Peace They Sought (Princeton U. Press, 1957).

Fischer, Fritz, Germany’s Aims in the First World War (Norton, 1968).

Fitzpatrick, Sheila, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s (Oxford U. Press, 2000).

Flower, Desmond, and James Reeves, eds., The War: 1939-1945: A Documentary History (Da Capo, 1997).

Frank, Richard B., Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire (Penguin, 1999).

Fuchida, Mitsuo, and Masatake Okumiya, Midway: The Battle that Doomed Japan (Ballantine, 1955).

Gaddis, John Lewis, The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past (Oxford U. Press, 2002).

Galbraith, John Kenneth, The Anatomy of Power (Houghton Mifflin, 1985).

Galtung, Johan, Searching for Peace: The Road to Transcend (Pluto, 2002).

Geertz, Clifford, The Interpretation of Cultures (Basic Books, 1977).

Gillis, John R., ed., Commemorations: the Politics of National Identity (Princeton U. Press, 1994).

Glantz, David M., and Jonathan M. House, When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler (Univ. Press of Kansas, 1995).

Goldhagen, Daniel, Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (Vintage, 1997).

—–, A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust and its Unfulfilled Duty of Repair (Knopf, 2002).

Golsan, Richard J., Vichy’s Afterlife: History and Counterhistory in Postwar France (U. of Nebraska Press, 2000).

Gordon, Andrew, A Modern History of Japan (Oxford U. Press, 2003).

Gray, J. Glenn, The Warriors: Reflections on Men in Battle (Harper & Row, 1970).

Grodzins, Morton, Americans Betrayed (U. of Chicago Press, 1949).

Haas, Peter, Morality After Auschwitz: The Radical Challenge of the Nazi Ethic (Fortress, 1988).

Hallie, Philip, Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed: The Story of the Village of Le Chambon and How Goodness Happened There (Harper & Row, 1979).

Harris, Sheldon H., Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-up (Routledge, 1994).

Harris, Whitney R., Tyranny on Trial: The Trial of the Major German War Criminals at the End of World War II at Nuremberg, Germany, 1945-1946 (Southern Methodist U. Press, 1999).

Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan (Belknap, 2005).

Hastings, Max, Armageddon: The Battle for Germany, 1944-1945 (Knopf, 2005).

Hawkins, Mike, Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945 : Nature as Model and Nature as Threat (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

Hecht, Gabrielle, The Radiance of France: Nuclear Power and National Identity After World War II (MIT Press, 1998).

Henderson, Nevile, Failure of a Mission: Berlin 1937-1939 (Putnam, 1940).

Herzer, Ivo, ed., The Italian Refuge: Rescue of Jews During the Holocaust (Catholic U. of America Press, 1989).

Hilberg, Raul, Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe, 1933-1945 (HarperCollins, 1992).

Hoffmann, Stanley, Duties Beyond Borders: On the Limits and Possibilities of Ethical International Relations (Syracuse U. Press, 1981).

Hogan, Michael J., ed., Hiroshima in History and Memory (Cambridge U. Press, 1996).

—–, The Marshall Plan : America, Britain and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947-1952 (Cambridge U. Press, 1989).

Howard, Michael, ed., Restraints on War: Studies in the Limitation of Armed Conflict (Oxford U. Press, 1979).

Hoyt, Edwin P., How They Won the War in the Pacific: Nimitz and His Admirals (Lyons, 2000).

Hughes, Daniel J., ed., Moltke on the Art of War (Presidio, 1993).

Igarashi, Yoshikuni, Bodies of Memory: Narratives of War in Postwar Japanese Culture, 1945-1970 (Princeton U. Press, 2000).

Iggers, Georg, Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge (Wesleyan U. Press, 1997).

Inoguchi, Rikihei, Tadashi Nakajima, and Roger Pineau, The Divine Wind: Japan’s Kamikaze Force in World War II (Greenwood Press, 1959).

Iriye, Akira, The Origins of the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific (Longman, 1987).

Irokawa, Daikichi, The Age of Hirohito (Free Press, 1995).

Irons, Peter, Justice at War: The Story of the Japanese Internment Cases (U. of California Press, 1983).

Jäckel, Eberhard, Hitler’s World View (Harvard U. Press, 1981).

Johnson, Sterling, Peace Without Justice: Hegemonic Instability or International Criminal Law? (Ashgate, 2003).

Jonas, Hans, The Imperative of Responsibility: In Search of an Ethics for the Technological Age, trans. by Hans

Jonas and David Herr (U. of Chicago Press, 1984).

Joy, Bill, “Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us,” Wired 8.04 (April 2000), available online at:

Keegan, John, The Face of Battle (Penguin, 1995).

—–, The Second World War (Penguin, 1989).

Kennedy, David M., The American People in World War II (Oxford U. Press, 1999).

Kershaw, Ian, Hitler, 1889-1936: Hubris (Norton, 1999); and Hitler: 1936-1945: Nemesis (Norton, 2001).

—–, The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation, 4th ed. (Arnold, 2000).

—–, and Moshe Lewin, eds., Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

Koestler, Arthur, Darkness at Noon (Bantam, 1984).

Kolakowski, Leszek, Main Currents of Marxism (Oxford U. Press, 1981).

Lafore, Laurence, The End of Glory: An Interpretation of the Origins of World War II (Waveland, 1970).

Laird, Robin F., ed., Strangers and Friends: The Franco-German Security Relationship (St. Martin’s, 1989).

Lanouette, William, with Bela Silard, Genius in the Shadows: A Biography of Leo Szilard (Macmillan, 1992).

Lederberg, Joshua, ed., Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat (MIT Press, 1999).

Leon, Warren, and Roy Rosenzweig, eds., History Museums in the United States: A Critical Assessment (U. of Illinois Press, 1989).

Levi, Carlo, The Watch (Steerforth, 1999 [1st English-language ed. 1951]).

Levi, Primo, Survival in Auschwitz, trans. by Stuart Woolf (Summit, 1986).

Levine, Alan J., The Strategic Bombing of Germany, 1940-1945 (Praeger, 1992).

Lichtheim, George, Marxism: A Historical and Critical Study (Routledge, 1964).

Lightman, Alan, Daniel Sarewitz, and Christina Desser, eds., Living with the Genie: Essays on Technology and the Quest for Human Mastery (Island, 2003).

Lindqvist, Sven, A History of Bombing (New Press, 2001).

Linenthal, Edward T., and Tom Engelhardt, eds., History Wars: The Enola Gay and Other Battles for the American Past (Holt, 1996).

Lipstadt, Deborah E., Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory (Free Press, 1993).

Litwack, Leon, et. al., The United States: Becoming a World Power, fifth ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1982).

Lord, Walter, Midway: Incredible Victory (Harper & Row, 1967).

Lukacs, John, Five Days in London: May 1940 (Yale U. Press, 2001).

Lukes, Steven, Power: A Radical View, second ed. (Palgrave, 2004).

—–, ed., Power (New York U. Press, 1986).

MacIntyre, Alasdair, After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory (U. of Notre Dame Press, 1984).

Malia, Martin, The Soviet Tragedy: A History of Socialism in Russia, 1917-1991 (Free Press, 1995).

Maier, Charles S., The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity (Harvard U. Press, 1988).

Manchester, William, Goodbye, Darkness: A Memoir of the Pacific War (Back Bay, 2002).

—–, The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone, 1932-1940 (Little, Brown, 1988).

Mangold, Tom, and Jeff Goldberg, Plague Wars: The Terrifying Reality of Biological Warfare (St. Martin’s, 2001).

Maogoto, Jackson N., War Crimes and Realpolitik: International Justice from World War I to the 21st Century (Rienner, 2004).

Marshall, George C., Biennial reports of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army to the Secretary of War : 1 July 1939-30 June 1945 (Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1996).

—–,, “Speech to the New York Herald Tribune Forum,” October 29, 1945, in Larry Bland, ed., The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, vol. 5 (Johns Hopkins U. Press, 2003), 337-38.

Marrus, Michael, The Holocaust in History (U. Press of New England, 1987).

Martel, Gordon, ed., The World War Two Reader (Routledge, 2004).

McCarthy, Patrick, ed., France-Germany, 1983-1993: the Struggle to Cooperate (St. Martin’s, 1993).

—–, ed., France-Germany in the Twenty-First Century (Palgrave, 2001).

McCullough, David, Truman (Simon & Schuster, 1992).

McNamara, Robert S., Wilson’s Ghost: Reducing the Risk of Conflict, Killing, and Catastrophe in the 21st Century (Public Affairs, 2003).

Meltzer, Milton, Rescue: The story of how Gentiles saved Jews in the Holocaust (Harper & Row, 1988).

Michalczyk, John J., ed., Resisters, Rescuers, and Refugees: Historical and Ethical Issues (Sheed & Ward, 1997).

Milgram, Stanley, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View ( Harper & Row, 1974).

Milward, Alan S., War, Economy, and Society, 1939-1945 (U. of California Press, 1979).

Minear, Richard H., Victor’s Justice: The Tokyo War Crimes Trial (Princeton U. Press, 1971).

Mitsuru, Yoshida, Requiem for Battleship Yamato, translated by Richard Minear (U. of Washington Press, 1985).

Montefiore, Simon Sebag, Stalin: The Court of the Red Czar (Knopf, 2004).

Morgenthau, Hans, Politics Among Nations (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

Morrison, Samuel Eliot, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, 15 vols. (Book Sales, 2001).

Murray, Williamson, and Allan R. Millett, A War to Be Won: Fighting the Second World War (Harvard U. Press, 2000).

Myerson, Roger B., Game Theory: Analysis of Conflict (Harvard U. Press, 1997).

Nagler, Michael, Is There No Other Way?: The Search for a Nonviolent Future (Berkeley Hills, 2001).

Nash, Gary B., Charlotte Crabtree, and Ross E. Dunn, History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past (Vintage, 2000).

Neillands, Robin, The Bomber War: Arthur Harris and the Allied Bomber Offensive, 1939-1945 (John Murray, 2001).

Ninkovich, Frank, The Wilsonian Century: U.S. Foreign Policy Since 1900 (U. of Chicago Press, 2001).

Noguères, Henri, Histoire de la Résistance en France, de 1940 à 1945, 5 vols. (Laffont, 1981).

Novick, Peter, That Noble Dream: The “Objectivity Question” and the American Historical Profession (Cambridge U. Press, 1988).

Onoda, Hiroo, No Surrender: My Thirty-Year War, trans. By Charles Terry (Kodansha International, 1974).

Oppenheimer, Robert, “Speech Before the Association of Los Alamos Scientists” (November 1945), in Alice K. Smith and Charles Weiner, eds., Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and Recollections (Harvard U. Press, 1980).

Overy, Richard, The Road to War (Penguin, 2000).

—–, Why the Allies Won (Norton, 1995).

Parker, R.A.C., The Second World War: A Short History (Oxford U. Press, 1989).

Paxton, Robert O., Europe in the Twentieth Century (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975).

—–, Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order (Columbia U. Press, 2001).

Persico, Joseph E., Nuremberg: Infamy on Trial (Penguin, 1994).

Polenberg, Richard, War and Society: The United States, 1941-1945 (Lippincott, 1972).

Power, Samantha, ‘A Problem from Hell’: America and the Age of Genocide (Perennial, 2003).

Prange, Gordon, At Dawn We Slept (Penguin, 1982).

—–, Miracle at Midway (Penguin, 1982).

Probert, Henry, Bomber Harris: His Life and Times; The Biography of Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Harris, the Wartime Chief of Bomber Command (Greenhill, 2003).

Puchala, Donald, Theory and History in International Relations (Routledge, 2003).

Remnick, David, Lenin’s Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire (Random House, 1993).

Rhodes, Richard, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (Simon & Schuster, 1986).

Rittner, Carol, and Sondra Myers, eds, The Courage to Care: Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust (New York U. Press, 1986).

Robertson, Geoffrey, Crimes Against Humanity: The Struggle for Global Justice (New Press, 1999).

Rosenau, James N., and Ernst-Otto Czempiel, eds., Governance Without Government: Order and Change in World Politics (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Rosenzweig, Roy, and David Thelen, The Presence of the Past: Popular Uses of History in American Life (Columbia U. Press, 2000).

Ross, Stewart H., Strategic Bombing by the United States in World War II: The Myths and the Facts (McFarland, 2003 ).

Sachs, Jeffrey, The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for our Time (Penguin, 2005).

Said, Edward W., Orientalism (Vintage, 1979).

Schaffer, Ronald, Wings of Judgment: American Bombing in World War II (Oxford U. Press, 1985).

Schain, Martin A., ed., The Marshall Plan: Fifty Years After (Palgrave, 2001).

Schell, Jonathan, The Unconquerable World: Power, Nonviolence, and the Will of the People (Metropolitan, 2003).

Schwartz, Thomas A., America’s Germany: John J. McCloy and the Federal Republic of Germany (Harvard U. Press, 1991).

Sherry, Michael S., The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon (Yale U. Press, 1989).

Sherwin, Martin, A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance (Knopf, 1975).

Silone, Ignazio, Bread and Wine (Signet, 1988).

Skates, John Ray, The Invasion of Japan: Alternative to the Bomb (U. of South Carolina Press, 1994).

Sledge, E. B., With the Old Breed at Peleliu and Okinawa (Oxford U. Press, 1990).
Smith, Harold L., ed., War and Social Change: British Society in the Second World War (Manchester U. Press, 1986).

Smith, Helmut Walser, The Butcher’s Tale: Murder and Anti-Semitism in a German Town (Norton, 2002).

Smith, Merritt Roe, and Leo Marx, eds., Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism (MIT Press, 2001).

Spector, Ronald, Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan (Vintage, 1985).

Spiegelman, Art, Maus: A Survivor’s Tale, two vols. (Pantheon, 1973-86).

Stackelberg, Roderick, Hitler’s Germany : Origins, Interpretations, Legacies (Routledge, 1999).

Stanton, Fred, ed., Fighting Racism in World War II (Pathfinder, 1980).

Staub, Ervin, The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence (Cambridge U. Press, 1989).

Stern, Kenneth S., Holocaust Denial (American Jewish Committee, 1993).

Stoler, Mark A., George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century (Twayne, 1989).

Szilard, Leo, Helen S. Hawkins, G. Allen Greb, Gertrud Weiss Szilard, eds., Toward a Livable World: Leo Szilard and the Crusade for Nuclear Arms Control (MIT Press, 1987).

—–, “Reminiscences,” in Gertrud Weiss Szilard and Katherine Winsor, eds., Perspectives in American History (Harvard University, Charles Warren Center for the Study of American History, 1968).

Tanaka, Yuki, Hidden Horrors: Japanese War Crimes in World War II (Westview, 1998).

Taylor, A.J.P., The Origins of the Second World War (Simon & Schuster, reprinted 1996).

Teller, Edward, Memoirs (Perseus, 2001).

Terkel, Studs, The “Good War”: An Oral History of World War Two (Ballantine, 1984).

Thomas, Gordon, Voyage of the Damned (Fawcett, 1976).

Thompson, E. P., The Heavy Dancers (Merlin Press, 1985).

—–, There is a Spirit in Europe: A Memoir of Frank Thompson (Gollancz, 1947).

Tiersky, Ronald, François Mitterrand (Palgrave, 2000).

Trevor-Roper, Hugh, The Last Days of Hitler (Pan, 1952).

Tusa, Ann, and John Tusa, The Nuremberg Trial (Atheneum, 1984).

Walzer, Michael, Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument With Historical Illustrations (Diane, 1977).

Watt, Donald Cameron, How War Came: The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938-1939 (Pantheon, 1989).

Weart, Spencer R., and Gertrud Weiss Szilard, eds., Leo Szilard, His Version of the Facts (MIT Press, 1978).

Weinberg, Gerhard, The Foreign Policy of Hitler’s Germany, 2 vols. (Prometheus, 1994).

—–, A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).

Whitehead, Kenneth D., “The Pope Pius XII Controversy,” The Political Science Reviewer XXXI (2002).

Willis, James F., Prologue to Nuremberg: The Politics and Diplomacy of Punishing War Criminals of the First World War (Greenwood, 1982).

Willmott, H.P., The War with Japan: The Period of Balance, May 1942 – October 1943 (Scholarly Resources, 2002).

Wilson, Joe W. Jr., et. al., The 761st “Black Panther” Tank Battalion in World War II (McFarland, 1999).

Wineburg, Sam, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts (Temple U. Press, 2001).

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, “A Lecture on Ethics,” in James C. Klagge and Alfred Nordmann, eds., Philosophical
Occasions 1912-1951 (Hackett, 1993), 37-44.

Wittner, Lawrence S., One World or None: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement Through 1953 (Stanford U. Press, 1993).

Wohlstetter, Roberta, Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision (Stanford U. Press, 1962).

Wouk, Herman, War and Remembrance (Little, Brown, 1985).

—–, The Winds of War (Little, Brown, 1985).

Wright, Gordon, The Ordeal of Total War, 1939-1945 (Waveland, 1997).

Wynn, Neil, The Afro-American and the Second World War (Elek, 1976).

Yahil, Leni, The Rescue of Danish Jewry: Test of a Democracy (Jewish Publication Society, 1969).

Young, James E., The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning (Yale U. Press, 1993).

Zuccotti, Susan, The Italians and the Holocaust (Basic Books, 1987).

—–, Under His Very Windows: The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy (Yale U. Press, 2002).